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Fatigue Regulations for Truck Drivers

The Fatigue Regulations

Hours of Driving. (Subject to numerous exceptions):

Daily requirement. No driver can drive a motor vehicle for more than
11 cumulative hours, following 10 consecutive hours “off duty.” or
For any period after the 14th hour after coming on duty.
7 day requirement. No driver can drive, if they have been on duty 60 hours in 7 consecutive days;
8 day requirement. No driver can drive, if they have been on duty 70 hours in 8 consecutive days.
Weekly Rest Period. In order to start a new 7/8 day period, the driver has to be off for at least 34 or more consecutive hours.
Driving time means all time spent at the driving controls of a commercial motor vehicle in operation.
On duty time means all time from the time a driver begins to work or is required to be in readiness to work until the time the driver is relieved from work and all responsibility for performing work.
The Operative Part of the Regulations for Driver Hours of Service are Below:

Subject to the exceptions and exemptions in § 395.1:

(a) No motor carrier shall permit or require any driver used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle:
(1) More than 11 cumulative hours following 10 consecutive hours off duty; or
(2) For any period after the end of the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off duty, except when a property-carrying driver complies with the provisions of
§ 395.1(o).
(b) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property- carrying commercial motor vehicle, regardless of the number of motor carriers using the driver’s services, for any period after-
(1) Having been on duty 60 hours in any 7 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier does not operate commercial motor vehicles every day of the week; or
(2) Having been on duty 70 hours in any period of 8 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier operates commercial motor vehicles every day of the week.
(c) (1) Any period of 7 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours; or
(2) Any period of 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours.

Driving time means all time spent at the driving controls of a commercial motor vehicle in operation.
Eight consecutive days means the period of 8 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
On duty time means all time from the time a driver begins to work or is required to be in readiness to work until the time the driver is relieved from work and all responsibility for performing work.
Seven consecutive days means the period of 7 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS
SECTIONS 395.1-395.3, 395.8, 395.13, 395.15
HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS

Note: The following sections of the Code of Federal Regulations relating to limits on truck drivers’ hours of service are vital in supporting a case against the driver and the trucking company.

TITLE 49-TRANSPORTATION
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
PART 395-HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS

Sec. 395.1 Scope of rules in this part.

(a) General.
(1) The rules in this part apply to all motor carriers and drivers, except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (n) of this section.
(2) The exceptions from Federal requirements contained in paragraphs (l) through (n) do not preempt State laws and regulations governing the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles.
(b) Adverse driving conditions.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, a driver who encounters adverse driving conditions, as defined in § 395.2, and cannot, because of those conditions, safely complete the run within the maximum driving time permitted by §§ 395.3(a) or 395.5(a) may drive and be permitted or required to drive a commercial motor vehicle for not more than 2 additional hours in order to complete that run or to reach a place offering safety for the occupants of the commercial motor vehicle and security for the commercial motor vehicle and its cargo. However, that driver may not drive or be permitted to drive-
(i) For more than 13 hours in the aggregate following 10 consecutive hours off duty for drivers of property-carrying commercial motor vehicles;
(ii) After he/she has been on duty after the end of the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off duty for drivers of property- carrying commercial motor vehicles;
(iii) For more than 12 hours in the aggregate following 8 consecutive hours off duty for drivers of passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicles; or
(iv) After he/she has been on duty 15 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty for drivers of passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicles.
(2) Emergency conditions. In case of any emergency, a driver may complete his/her run without being in violation of the provisions of the regulations in this part, if such run reasonably could have been completed absent the emergency.
(c) Driver-salesperson. The provisions of § 395.3(b) shall not apply to any driver-salesperson whose total driving time does not exceed 40 hours in any period of 7 consecutive days.
(d) Oilfield operations.
(1) In the instance of drivers of commercial motor vehicles used exclusively in the transportation of oilfield equipment, including the stringing and picking up of pipe used in pipelines, and servicing of the field operations of the natural gas and oil industry, any period of 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off-duty period of 24 or more successive hours.
(2) In the case of specially trained drivers of commercial motor vehicles which are specially constructed to service oil wells, on-duty time shall not include waiting time at a natural gas or oil well site; provided, that all such time shall be fully and accurately accounted for in records to be maintained by the motor carrier. Such records shall be made available upon request of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.
(e) 100 air-mile radius driver. A driver is exempt from the requirements of Section 395.8 if:
(1) The driver operates within a 100 air-mile radius of the normal work reporting location;
(2) The driver, except a driver salesperson, returns to the work reporting location and is released from work within 12 consecutive hours;
(3) (i) A property-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver has at least 10 consecutive hours off duty separating each 12 hours on duty;
(ii) A passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver has at least 8 consecutive hours off duty separating each 12 hours on duty;
(4) (i) A property-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver does not exceed 11 hours maximum driving time following 10 consecutive hours off duty; or
(ii) A passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver does not exceed 10 hours maximum driving time following 8 consecutive hours off duty; and
(5) The motor carrier that employs the driver maintains and retains for a period of 6 months accurate and true time records showing:
(i) The time the driver reports for duty each day;
(ii) The total number of hours the driver is on duty each day;
(iii) The time the driver is released from duty each day; and
(iv) The total time for the preceding 7 days in accordance with § 395.8(j)(2) for drivers used for the first time or intermittently.
(f) Retail store deliveries. The provisions of § 395.3 (a) and (b) shall not apply with respect to drivers of commercial motor vehicles engaged solely in making local deliveries from retail stores and/or retail catalog businesses to the ultimate consumer, when driving solely within a 100-air mile radius of the driver’s work-reporting location, during the period from December 10 to December 25, both inclusive, of each year.
(g) Sleeper berths.
(1) General property-carrying commercial motor vehicle. A driver who is driving a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle that is equipped with a sleeper berth, as defined in §§ 395.2 and 393.76 of this subchapter, may accumulate the equivalent of 10 consecutive hours of off-duty time by taking a combination of at least 10 consecutive hours off-duty and sleeper berth time; or by taking two periods of rest in the sleeper berth, providing:
(i) Neither rest period is shorter than two hours;
(ii) The driving time in the period immediately before and after each rest period, when added together, does not exceed 11 hours;
(iii) The driver does not drive after the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 hours off duty, where the 14th hour is calculated:
(A) by excluding any sleeper berth period of at least 2 hours which, when added to a subsequent sleeper berth period, totals at least 10 hours, and
(B) by including all on-duty time, all off-duty time not spent in the sleeper berth, all sleeper berth periods of less than 2 hours, and any sleeper berth period not described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii)(A); and
(iv) The driver may not return to driving subject to the normal limits under § 395.3 without taking at least 10 consecutive hours off duty, at least 10 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, or a combination of at least 10 consecutive hours off duty and sleeper berth time.
(2) Specially trained driver of a specially constructed oil well servicing commercial motor vehicle at a natural gas or oil well location. A specially trained driver who operates a commercial motor vehicle specially constructed to service natural gas or oil wells that is equipped with a sleeper berth, as defined in §§ 395.2 and 393.76 of this subchapter, or who is off duty at a natural gas or oil well location, may accumulate the equivalent of 10 consecutive hours off duty by taking a combination of at least 10 consecutive hours of off-duty time, sleeper-berth time, or time in other sleeping accommodations at a natural gas or oil well location; or by taking two periods of rest in a sleeper berth, or other sleeping accommodation at a natural gas or oil well location, providing:
(i) Neither rest period is shorter than two hours;
(ii) The driving time in the period immediately before and after each rest period, when added together, does not exceed 11 hours;
(iii) The driver does not drive after the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 hours off duty, where the 14th hour is calculated:
(A) by excluding any sleeper berth or other sleeping accommodation period of at least 2 hours which, when added to a subsequent sleeper berth or other sleeping accommodation period, totals at least 10 hours, and
(B) by including all on-duty time, all off-duty time not spent in the sleeper berth or other sleeping accommodations, all such periods of less than 2 hours, and any period not described in paragraph (g)(2)(iii)(A); and
(iv) The driver may not return to driving subject to the normal limits under § 395.3 without taking at least 10 consecutive hours off duty, at least 10 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth or other sleeping accommodations, or a combination of at least 10 consecutive hours off duty, sleeper berth time, or time in other sleeping accommodations.
(3) Passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicles. A driver who is driving a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle that is equipped with a sleeper berth, as defined in §§ 395.2 and 393.76 of this subchapter, may accumulate the equivalent of 8 consecutive hours of off-duty time by taking a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours off-duty and sleeper berth time; or by taking two periods of rest in the sleeper berth, providing:
(i) Neither rest period is shorter than two hours;
(ii) The driving time in the period immediately before and after each rest period, when added together, does not exceed 10 hours;
(iii) The on-duty time in the period immediately before and after each rest period, when added together, does not include any driving time after the 15th hour; and
(iv) The driver may not return to driving subject to the normal limits under § 395.5 without taking at least 8 consecutive hours off duty, at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, or a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours off duty and sleeper berth time.
(h) State of Alaska.
(1) Property-carrying commercial motor vehicle. The provisions of § 395.3(a) do not apply to any driver who is driving a commercial motor vehicle in the State of Alaska. A driver who is driving a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle in the State of Alaska must not drive or be required or permitted to drive-
(i) More than 15 hours following 10 consecutive hours off duty; or
(ii) After being on duty for 20 hours or more following 10 consecutive hours off duty.
(iii) After having been on duty for 70 hours in any period of 7 consecutive days, if the motor carrier for which the driver drives does not operate every day in the week; or
(iv) After having been on duty for 80 hours in any period of 8 consecutive days, if the motor carrier for which the driver drives operates every day in the week.
(2) Passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle. The provisions of § 395.5 do not apply to any driver who is driving a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle in the State of Alaska. A driver who is driving a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle in the State of Alaska must not drive or be required or permitted to drive–
(i) More than 15 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty;
(ii) After being on duty for 20 hours or more following 8 consecutive hours off duty;
(iii) After having been on duty for 70 hours in any period of 7 consecutive days, if the motor carrier for which the driver drives does not operate every day in the week; or
(iv) After having been on duty for 80 hours in any period of 8 consecutive days, if the motor carrier for which the driver drives operates every day in the week.
(3) A driver who is driving a commercial motor vehicle in the State of Alaska and who encounters adverse driving conditions (as defined in § 395.2) may drive and be permitted or required to drive a commercial motor vehicle for the period of time needed to complete the run.
(i) After a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver completes the run, that driver must be off duty for at least 10 consecutive hours before he/she drives again; and
(ii) After a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver completes the run, that driver must be off duty for at least 8 consecutive hours before he/she drives again.
(i) State of Hawaii. The rules in § 395.8 do not apply to a driver who drives a commercial motor vehicle in the State of Hawaii, if the motor carrier who employs the driver maintains and retains for a period of 6 months accurate and true records showing-
(1) The total number of hours the driver is on duty each day; and
(2) The time at which the driver reports for, and is released from, duty each day.
(j) Travel time.
(1) When a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver at the direction of the motor carrier is traveling, but not driving or assuming any other responsibility to the carrier, such time must be counted as on-duty time unless the driver is afforded at least 10 consecutive hours off duty when arriving at destination, in which case he/she must be considered off duty for the entire period.
(2) When a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle driver at the direction of the motor carrier is traveling, but not driving or assuming any other responsibility to the carrier, such time must be counted as on-duty time unless the driver is afforded at least 8 consecutive hours off duty when arriving at destination, in which case he/she must be considered off duty for the entire period.
(k) Agricultural operations. The provisions of this part shall not apply to drivers transporting agricultural commodities or farm supplies for agricultural purposes in a State if such transportation:
(1) Is limited to an area within a 100 air mile radius from the source of the commodities or the distribution point for the farm supplies, and
(2) Is conducted during the planting and harvesting seasons within such State, as determined by the State.
(l) Ground water well drilling operations. In the instance of a driver of a commercial motor vehicle who is used primarily in the transportation and operations of a ground water well drilling rig, any period of 7 or 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off-duty period of 24 or more successive hours.
(m) Construction materials and equipment. In the instance of a driver of a commercial motor vehicle who is used primarily in the transportation of construction materials and equipment, any period of 7 or 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off-duty period of 24 or more successive hours.
(n) Utility service vehicles. In the instance of a driver of a utility service vehicle, any period of 7 or 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off-duty period of 24 or more successive hours.
(o) Property-carrying driver. A property-carrying driver is exempt from the requirements of
§ 395.3(a)(2) if:
(1) The driver has returned to the driver’s normal work reporting location and the carrier released the driver from duty at that location for the previous five duty tours the driver has worked;
(2) The driver has returned to the normal work reporting location and the carrier releases the driver from duty within 16 hours after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off duty; and
(3) The driver has not taken this exemption within the previous 6 consecutive days, except when the driver has begun a new 7- or 8-consecutive day period with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours as allowed by § 395.3(c).
Sec. 395.2 Definitions.
As used in this part, the following words and terms are construed to mean:
Adverse driving conditions means snow, sleet, fog, other adverse weather conditions, a highway covered with snow or ice, or unusual road and traffic conditions, none of which were apparent on the basis of information known to the person dispatching the run at the time it was begun.
Automatic on-board recording device means an electric, electronic, electromechanical, or mechanical device capable of recording driver’s duty status information accurately and automatically as required by § 395.15. The device must be integrally synchronized with specific operations of the commercial motor vehicle in which it is installed. At a minimum, the device must record engine use, road speed, miles driven, the date, and time of day.
Driver-salesperson means any employee who is employed solely as such by a private carrier of property by commercial motor vehicle, who is engaged both in selling goods, services, or the use of goods, and in delivering by commercial motor vehicle the goods sold or provided or upon which the services are performed, who does so entirely within a radius of 100 miles of the point at which he/she reports for duty, who devotes not more than 50 percent of his/her hours on duty to driving time. The term selling goods for purposes of this section shall include in all cases solicitation or obtaining of reorders or new accounts, and may also include other selling or merchandising activities designed to retain the customer or to increase the sale of goods or services, in addition to solicitation or obtaining of reorders or new accounts.
Driving time means all time spent at the driving controls of a commercial motor vehicle in operation.
Eight consecutive days means the period of 8 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
Ground water well drilling rig means any vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer, semi-trailer, or specialized mobile equipment propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used on highways to transport water well field operating equipment, including water well drilling and pump service rigs equipped to access ground water.
Multiple stops means all stops made in any one village, town, or city may be computed as one.
On duty time means all time from the time a driver begins to work or is required to be in readiness to work until the time the driver is relieved from work and all responsibility for performing work. On duty time shall include:
(1) All time at a plant, terminal, facility, or other property of a motor carrier or shipper, or on any public property, waiting to be dispatched, unless the driver has been relieved from duty by the motor carrier;
(2) All time inspecting, servicing, or conditioning any commercial motor vehicle at any time;
(3) All driving time as defined in the term driving time;
(4) All time, other than driving time, in or upon any commercial motor vehicle except time spent resting in a sleeper berth;
(5) All time loading or unloading a commercial motor vehicle, supervising, or assisting in the loading or unloading, attending a commercial motor vehicle being loaded or unloaded, remaining in readiness to operate the commercial motor vehicle, or in giving or receiving receipts for shipments loaded or unloaded;
(6) All time repairing, obtaining assistance, or remaining in attendance upon a disabled commercial motor vehicle;
(7) All time spent providing a breath sample or urine specimen, including travel time to and from the collection site, in order to comply with the random, reasonable suspicion, post-accident, or follow-up testing required by part 382 of this subchapter when directed by a motor carrier;
(8) Performing any other work in the capacity, employ, or service of a motor carrier; and
(9) Performing any compensated work for a person who is not a motor carrier.
Seven consecutive days means the period of 7 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
Sleeper berth means a berth conforming to the requirements of § 393.76 of this chapter.
Transportation of construction materials and equipment means the transportation of construction and pavement materials, construction equipment, and construction maintenance vehicles, by a driver to or from an active construction site (a construction site between mobilization of equipment and materials to the site to the final completion of the construction project) within a 50 air mile radius of the normal work reporting location of the driver. This paragraph does not apply to the transportation of material found by the Secretary to be hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations issued to carry out such section.
Twenty-four-hour period means any 24-consecutive-hour period beginning at the time designated by the motor carrier for the terminal from which the driver is normally dispatched.
Utility service vehicle means any commercial motor vehicle:
(1) Used in the furtherance of repairing, maintaining, or operating any structures or any other physical facilities necessary for the delivery of public utility services, including the furnishing of electric, gas, water, sanitary sewer, telephone, and television cable or community antenna service;
(2) While engaged in any activity necessarily related to the ultimate delivery of such public utility services to consumers, including travel or movement to, from, upon, or between activity sites (including occasional travel or movement outside the service area necessitated by any utility emergency as determined by the utility provider); and
(3) Except for any occasional emergency use, operated primarily within the service area of a utility’s subscribers or consumers, without regard to whether the vehicle is owned, leased, or rented by the utility.

Sec. 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

Subject to the exceptions and exemptions in § 395.1:

(a) No motor carrier shall permit or require any driver used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle:
(1) More than 11 cumulative hours following 10 consecutive hours off duty; or
(2) For any period after the end of the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off duty, except when a property-carrying driver complies with the provisions of
§ 395.1(o).
(b) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property- carrying commercial motor vehicle, regardless of the number of motor carriers using the driver’s services, for any period after-
(1) Having been on duty 60 hours in any 7 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier does not operate commercial motor vehicles every day of the week; or
(2) Having been on duty 70 hours in any period of 8 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier operates commercial motor vehicles every day of the week.
(c) (1) Any period of 7 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours; or
(2) Any period of 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours.

Sec. 395.8 Driver’s record of duty status.

(a) Except for a private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness), every motor carrier shall require every driver used by the motor carrier to record his/her duty status for each 24 hour period using the methods prescribed in either paragraphs (a)(1) or (2) of this section.
(1) Every driver who operates a commercial motor vehicle shall record his/her duty status, in duplicate, for each 24-hour period. The duty status time shall be recorded on a specified grid, as shown in paragraph (g) of this section. The grid and the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section may be combined with any company forms. The previously approved format of the Daily Log, Form MCS-59 or the Multi-day Log, MCS-139 and 139A, which meets the requirements of this section, may continue to be used.
(2) Every driver who operates a commercial motor vehicle shall record his/her duty status by using an automatic on-board recording device that meets the requirements of § 395.15 of this part. The requirements of § 395.8 shall not apply, except paragraphs (e) and (k) (1) and (2) of this section.
(b) The duty status shall be recorded as follows:
(1) “Off duty” or “OFF.”
(2) “Sleeper berth” or “SB” (only if a sleeper berth used).
(3) “Driving” or “D.”
(4) “On-duty not driving” or “ON.”
(c) For each change of duty status (e.g., the place of reporting for work, starting to drive, on-duty not driving and where released from work), the name of the city, town, or village, with State abbreviation, shall be recorded.
Note: If a change of duty status occurs at a location other than a city, town, or village, show one of the following: (1) The highway number and nearest milepost followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation, (2) the highway number and the name of the service plaza followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation, or (3) the highway numbers of the nearest two intersecting roadways followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation.
(d) The following information must be included on the form in addition to the grid:
(1) Date;
(2) Total miles driving today;
(3) Truck or tractor and trailer number;
(4) Name of carrier;
(5) Driver’s signature/certification;
(6) 24-hour period starting time (e.g., midnight, 9:00 a.m., noon, 3:00 p.m.);
(7) Main office address;
(8) Remarks;
(9) Name of co-driver;
(10) Total hours (far right edge of grid);
(11) Shipping document number(s), or name of shipper and commodity.
(e) Failure to complete the record of duty activities of this section or § 395.15, failure to preserve a record of such duty activities, or making of false reports in connection with such duty activities shall make the driver and/or the carrier liable to prosecution.
(f) The driver’s activities shall be recorded in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) Entries to be current. Drivers shall keep their records of duty status current to the time shown for the last change of duty status.
(2) Entries made by driver only. All entries relating to driver’s duty status must be legible and in the driver’s own handwriting.
(3) Date. The month, day and year for the beginning of each 24-hour period shall be shown on the form containing the driver’s duty status record.
(4) Total miles driving today. Total mileage driven during the 24-hour period shall be recorded on the form containing the driver’s duty status record.
(5) Commercial motor vehicle identification. The driver shall show the number assigned by the motor carrier, or the license number and licensing State of each commercial motor vehicle operated during each 24-hour period on his/her record of duty status. The driver of an articulated (combination) commercial motor vehicle shall show the number assigned by the motor carrier, or the license number and licensing State of each motor vehicle used in each commercial motor vehicle combination operated during that 24-hour period on his/her record of duty status.
(6) Name of motor carrier. The name(s) of the motor carrier(s) for which work is performed shall be shown on the form containing the driver’s record of duty status. When work is performed for more than one motor carrier during the same 24-hour period, the beginning and finishing time, showing a.m. or p.m., worked for each motor carrier shall be shown after each motor carrier’s name. Drivers of leased commercial motor vehicles shall show the name of the motor carrier performing the transportation.
(7) Signature/certification. The driver shall certify to the correctness of all entries by signing the form containing the driver’s duty status record with his/her legal name or name of record. The driver’s signature certifies that all entries required by this section made by the driver are true and correct.
(8) Time base to be used.
(i) The driver’s duty status record shall be prepared, maintained, and submitted using the time standard in effect at the driver’s home terminal, for a 24-hour period beginning with the time specified by the motor carrier for that driver’s home terminal.
(ii) The term “7 or 8 consecutive days” means the 7 or 8 consecutive 24-hour periods as designated by the carrier for the driver’s home terminal.
(iii) The 24-hour period starting time must be identified on the driver’s duty status record. One-hour increments must appear on the graph, be identified, and preprinted. The words “Midnight” and “Noon” must appear above or beside the appropriate one-hour increment.
(9) Main office address. The motor carrier’s main office address shall be shown on the form containing the driver’s duty status record.
(10) Recording days off duty. Two or more consecutive 24-hour periods off duty may be recorded on one duty status record.
(11) Total hours. The total hours in each duty status: off duty other than in a sleeper berth; off duty in a sleeper berth; driving, and on duty not driving, shall be entered to the right of the grid, the total of such entries shall equal 24 hours.
(12) Shipping document number(s) or name of shipper and commodity shall be shown on the driver’s record of duty status.
(g) Graph grid. The following graph grid must be incorporated into a motor carrier recordkeeping system which must also contain the information required in paragraph (d) of this section.
(h) Graph grid preparation. The graph grid may be used horizontally or vertically and shall be completed as follows:
(1) Off duty. Except for time spent resting in a sleeper berth, a continuous line shall be drawn between the appropriate time markers to record the period(s) of time when the driver is not on duty, is not required to be in readiness to work, or is not under any responsibility for performing work.
(2) Sleeper berth. A continuous line shall be drawn between the appropriate time markers to record the period(s) of time off duty resting in a sleeper berth, as defined in § 395.2. (If a non-sleeper berth operation, sleeper berth need not be shown on the grid.)
(3) Driving. A continuous line shall be drawn between the appropriate time markers to record the period(s) of driving time, as defined in § 395.2.
(4) On duty not driving. A continuous line shall be drawn between the appropriate time markers to record the period(s) of time on duty not driving specified in § 395.2.
(5) Location-remarks. The name of the city, town, or village, with State abbreviation where each change of duty status occurs shall be recorded.
Note: If a change of duty status occurs at a location other than a city, town, or village, show one of the following: (1) The highway number and nearest milepost followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation, (2) the highway number and the name of the service plaza followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation, or (3) the highway numbers of the nearest two intersecting roadways followed by the name of the nearest city, town, or village and State abbreviation.
(i) Filing driver’s record of duty status. The driver shall submit or forward by mail the original driver’s record of duty status to the regular employing motor carrier within 13 days following the completion of the form.
(j) Drivers used by more than one motor carrier.
(1) When the services of a driver are used by more than one motor carrier during any 24-hour period in effect at the driver’s home terminal, the driver shall submit a copy of the record of duty status to each motor carrier. The record shall include:
(i) All duty time for the entire 24-hour period;
(ii) The name of each motor carrier served by the driver during that period; and
(iii) The beginning and finishing time, including a.m. or p.m., worked for each carrier.
(2) Motor carriers, when using a driver for the first time or intermittently, shall obtain from the driver a signed statement giving the total time on duty during the immediately preceding 7 days and the time at which the driver was last relieved from duty prior to beginning work for the motor carriers.
(k) Retention of driver’s record of duty status.
(1) Each motor carrier shall maintain records of duty status and all supporting documents for each driver it employs for a period of six months from the date of receipt.
(2) The driver shall retain a copy of each record of duty status for the previous 7 consecutive days which shall be in his/her possession and available for inspection while on duty.
Note: Driver’s Record of Duty Status.
The graph grid, when incorporated as part of any form used by a motor carrier, must be of sufficient size to be legible.
The following executed specimen grid illustrates how a driver’s duty status should be recorded for a trip from Richmond, Virginia, to Newark, New Jersey. The grid reflects the midnight to midnight 24 hour period.

The driver in this instance reported for duty at the motor carrier’s terminal. The driver reported for work at 6 a.m., helped load, checked with dispatch, made a pretrip inspection, and performed other duties until 7:30 a.m., when the driver began driving. At 9 a.m., the driver had a minor accident in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and spent one-half hour handling details with the local police. The driver arrived at the company’s Baltimore, Maryland, terminal at noon and went to lunch while minor repairs were made to the tractor. At 1 p.m., the driver resumed the trip and made a delivery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between 3 p.m. and 3:30 p.m. at which time the driver started driving again. Upon arrival at Cherry Hill, New Jersey, at 4 p.m., the driver entered the sleeper berth for a rest break until 5:45 p.m. at which time the driver resumed driving again. At 7 p.m., the driver arrived at the company’s terminal in Newark, New Jersey. Between 7 p.m. and 8 p.m., the driver prepared the required paperwork including completing the driver’s record of duty status, driver vehicle inspection report, insurance report for the Fredericksburg, Virginia accident, checked for the next day’s dispatch, etc. At 8 p.m., the driver went off duty.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB Control number 2125-0016)

Sec. 395.13 Drivers declared out of service.

(a) Authority to declare drivers Out of Service. Every special agent of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (as defined in Appendix B to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor carrier of that declaration, upon finding at the time and place of examination that the driver has violated the out of service criteria as set forth in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) Out of service criteria.
(1) No driver shall drive after being on duty in excess of the maximum periods permitted by this part.
(2) No driver required to maintain a record of duty status under § 395.8 or § 395.15 of this part shall fail to have a record of duty status current on the day of examination and for the prior seven consecutive days.
(3) Exception. A driver failing only to have possession of a record of duty status current on the day of examination and the prior day, but has completed records of duty status up to that time (previous 6 days), will be given the opportunity to make the duty status record current.
(c) Responsibilities of motor carriers.
(1) No motor carrier shall:
(i) Require or permit a driver who has been declared out of service to operate a commercial motor vehicle until that driver may lawfully do so under the rules in this part.
(ii) Require a driver who has been declared out of service for failure to prepare a record of duty status to operate a commercial motor vehicle until that driver has been off duty for the appropriate number of consecutive hours required by this part and is in compliance with this section. The appropriate consecutive hours off-duty period may include sleeper berth time.
(2) A motor carrier shall complete the “Motor Carrier Certification of Action Taken” portion of the form MCS-63 (Driver-Vehicle Examination Report) and deliver the copy of the form either personally or by mail to the Division Administrator or State Director, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, at the address specified upon the form within 15 days following the date of examination. If the motor carrier mails the form, delivery is made on the date it is postmarked.
(d) Responsibilities of the driver.
(1) No driver who has been declared out of service shall operate a commercial motor vehicle until that driver may lawfully do so under the rules of this part.
(2) No driver who has been declared out of service, for failing to prepare a record of duty status, shall operate a commercial motor vehicle until the driver has been off duty for the appropriate number of consecutive hours required by this part and is in compliance with this section.
(3) A driver to whom a form has been tendered declaring the driver out of service shall within 24 hours thereafter deliver or mail the copy to a person or place designated by motor carrier to receive it.
(4) Section 395.13 does not alter the hazardous materials requirements prescribed in § 397.5 pertaining to attendance and surveillance of commercial motor vehicles.

Sec. 395.15 Automatic on-board recording devices.

(a) Authority to use automatic on-board recording device.
(1) A motor carrier may require a driver to use an automatic on-board recording device to record the driver’s hours of service in lieu of complying with the requirements of § 395.8 of this part.
(2) Every driver required by a motor carrier to use an automatic on-board recording device shall use such device to record the driver’s hours of service.
(b) Information requirements.
(1) Automatic on-board recording devices shall produce, upon demand, a driver’s hours of service chart, electronic display, or printout showing the time and sequence of duty status changes including the drivers’ starting time at the beginning of each day.
(2) The device shall provide a means whereby authorized Federal, State, or local officials can immediately check the status of a driver’s hours of service. This information may be used in conjunction with handwritten or printed records of duty status, for the previous 7 days.
(3) Support systems used in conjunction with on-board recorders at a driver’s home terminal or the motor carrier’s principal place of business must be capable of providing authorized Federal, State or local officials with summaries of an individual driver’s hours of service records, including the information specified in § 395.8(d) of this part. The support systems must also provide information concerning on-board system sensor failures and identification of edited data. Such support systems should meet the information interchange requirements of the American National Standard Code for Information Interchange (ANSCII) (EIARS-232/CCITT V.24 port (National Bureau of Standards “Code for Information Interchange,” FIPS PUB 1-1)).
(4) The driver shall have in his/her possession records of duty status for the previous 7 consecutive days available for inspection while on duty. These records shall consist of information stored in and retrievable from the automatic on-board recording device, handwritten records, computer generated records, or any combination thereof.
(5) All hard copies of the driver’s record of duty status must be signed by the driver. The driver’s signature certifies that the information contained thereon is true and correct.
(c) The duty status and additional information shall be recorded as follows:
(1) “Off duty” or “OFF,” or by an identifiable code or character;
(2) “Sleeper berth” or “SB” or by an identifiable code or character (only if the sleeper berth is used);
(3) “Driving” or “D,” or by an identifiable code or character; and
(4) “On-duty not driving” or “ON,” or by an identifiable code or character.
(5) Date;
(6) Total miles driving today;
(7) Truck or tractor and trailer number;
(8) Name of carrier;
(9) Main office address;
(10) 24-hour period starting time (e.g., midnight, 9:00 a.m., noon, 3:00 p.m.)
(11) Name of co-driver;
(12) Total hours; and
(13) Shipping document number(s), or name of shipper and commodity.
(d) Location of duty status change.
(1) For each change of duty status (e.g., the place and time of reporting for work, starting to drive, on-duty not driving and where released from work), the name of the city, town, or village, with State abbreviation, shall be recorded.
(2) Motor carriers are permitted to use location codes in lieu of the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section. A list of such codes showing all possible location identifiers shall be carried in the cab of the commercial motor vehicle and available at the motor carrier’s principal place of business. Such lists shall be made available to an enforcement official on request.
(e) Entries made by driver only. If a driver is required to make written entries relating to the driver’s duty status, such entries must be legible and in the driver’s own handwriting.
(f) Reconstruction of records of duty status. Drivers are required to note any failure of automatic on-board recording devices, and to reconstruct the driver’s record of duty status for the current day, and the past 7 days, less any days for which the drivers have records, and to continue to prepare a handwritten record of all subsequent duty status until the device is again operational.
(g) On-board information. Each commercial motor vehicle must have on-board the commercial motor vehicle an information packet containing the following items:
(1) An instruction sheet describing in detail how data may be stored and retrieved from an automatic on-board recording system; and
(2) A supply of blank driver’s records of duty status graph-grids sufficient to record the driver’s duty status and other related information for the duration of the current trip.
(h) Submission of driver’s record of duty status.
(1) The driver shall submit, electronically or by mail, to the employing motor carrier, each record of the driver’s duty status within 13 days following the completion of each record;
(2) The driver shall review and verify that all entries are accurate prior to submission to the employing motor carrier; and
(3) The submission of the record of duty status certifies that all entries made by the driver are true and correct.
(i) Performance of recorders. Motor carriers that use automatic on-board recording devices for recording their drivers’ records of duty status in lieu of the handwritten record shall ensure that:
(1) A certificate is obtained from the manufacturer certifying that the design of the automatic on-board recorder has been sufficiently tested to meet the requirements of this section and under the conditions it will be used;
(2) The automatic on-board recording device permits duty status to be updated only when the commercial motor vehicle is at rest, except when registering the time a commercial motor vehicle crosses a State boundary;
(3) The automatic on-board recording device and associated support systems are, to the maximum extent practicable, tamperproof and do not permit altering of the information collected concerning the driver’s hours of service;
(4) The automatic on-board recording device warns the driver visually and/or audibly that the device has ceased to function. Devices installed and operational as of October 31, 1988, and authorized to be used in lieu of the handwritten record of duty status by the FMCSA are exempted from this requirement.
(5) Automatic on-board recording devices with electronic displays shall have the capability of displaying the following:
(i) Driver’s total hours of driving today;
(ii) The total hours on duty today;
(iii) Total miles driving today;
(iv) Total hours on duty for the 7 consecutive day period, including today;
(v) Total hours on duty for the prior 8 consecutive day period, including the present day; and
(vi) The sequential changes in duty status and the times the changes occurred for each driver using the device.
(6) The on-board recorder is capable of recording separately each driver’s duty status when there is a multiple-driver operation;
(7) The on-board recording device/system identifies sensor failures and edited data when reproduced in printed form. Devices installed and operational as of October 31, 1988, and authorized to be used in lieu of the handwritten record of duty status by the FMCSA are exempted from this requirement.
(8) The on-board recording device is maintained and recalibrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications;
(9) The motor carrier’s drivers are adequately trained regarding the proper operation of the device; and
(10) The motor carrier must maintain a second copy (back-up copy) of the electronic hours-of-service files, by month, in a different physical location than where the original data is stored.
(j) Rescission of authority.
(1) The FMCSA may, after notice and opportunity to reply, order any motor carrier or driver to comply with the requirements of § 395.8 of this part.
(2) The FMCSA may issue such an order if the FMCSA has determined that-
(i) The motor carrier has been issued a conditional or unsatisfactory safety rating by the FMCSA;
(ii) The motor carrier has required or permitted a driver to establish, or the driver has established, a pattern of exceeding the hours of service limitations of this part;
(iii) The motor carrier has required or permitted a driver to fail, or the driver has failed, to accurately and completely record the driver’s hours of service as required in this section; or
(iv) The motor carrier or driver has tampered with or otherwise abused the automatic on-board recording device on any commercial motor vehicle.

NEXT: Driving After Midnight

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Attorney Gordon Johnson :: g@gordonjohnson.com :: :: Facebook :: 800-992-9447
Past Chair Traumatic Brain Injury Litigation Group, American Association of Justice